One of the oldest, and most well-studied Nootropics, and the base of every racetam(and ampakine) to exist since, Piracetam reduces levels of Lipofuscin in the brain and increases blood/oxygen flow/consumption by stimulating mitochondria and modulating ion channels, slowing its aging process and improving its overall health and function.
Lipofuscin is generally associated with age-based degenerative disorders, and is essentially cell plaque; pigments of leftover matter(mostly oxidized lipid, but also sugar and trace metals) floating in cytoplasm, undigested by Lysosomes, which dispose of waste from within cells. This suggests that Piracetam Promotes the health of these waste-disposal systems within mammalian cells.
I guess thats why they use it to treat everything from alzheimer's and other neurological disorders, to high blood pressure, alcoholism, anxiety and even headaches.
It has zero toxicity, even at extremely high levels.
An essential nutrient, Choline is the precursor to a neurotransmitter heavily involved in memory and nerve communication(Acetylcholine). It can be found naturally in fattier proteins such as poultry, eggs, milk and almonds. It has an especially synergistic reaction with racetams, fueling their effects.
Choline supplements are often taken as a form of 'smart drug' or nootropic due to the role the neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. Choline is a chemical precursor or "building block" needed to produce acetylcholine, and research suggests that memory, intelligence, and mood are mediated at least in part by acetylcholine metabolism in the brain.